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Adoption does not automatically cut off the visitation rights of grandparents.

Colorado restricts grandparents from suing for visitation if the child lives in an intact family.

Adoption cuts off all visitation rights of the natural grandparents.

Grandparents cannot file for visitation rights in California if the grandchildren are living in an intact family unless specific conditions are met: the parents are living separately, a parent’s whereabouts are unknown for a month or more, the child has been adopted by a stepparent or the child does not live with either parent.

A grandparent may also petition for visitation rights if one of the parents joins that petition, if one of the parents of the child is deceased, or if the parents are unmarried.

However, if a the parents of a child born out of wedlock marry, the family is then considered an intact family and is subsequently exempt from these types of suits.

If the grandparents has “regular and frequent” contact with a child for at least 12 months and has a “strong and meaningful” relationship with their grandchild, they can also sue for visitation.

In order to win visitation rights, grandparents must show that visitation is in fact in the best interest of the child, with “clear and convincing evidence.” Alaska offers two routes to grandparent separation; asking to join a custody case or or suing for visitation on your own.

Determination of grandparent visitation rights must be made in an action for divorce, legal separation, or child placement action, or when both parents have died.

In order to grant visitation, grandparents must present the court with clear and convincing evidence showing that visitation with the grandparents is in the child’s best interest, the grandparent has had ongoing contact or has tried to have ongoing contact with the child, and that the parents limiting the grandparent’s visitation is harmful to the child.