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More recently, we developed a technique called TAIL-seq that allows the genomic scale investigation of m RNA tails.

Using this new tool, we are studying the function of m RNA tails in the context of development and diseases.

RNAs are often modified at the 3' end, which is critical for their stabilization, functionalization, and/or degradation.

We previously found that some micro RNAs are uridylated or adenylated and that the 3' tails regulate the biogenesis and stability of micro RNAs.

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We have set up a state-of-the-art proteomic facility, and are developing new tools to investigate the RNA-protein network.In order for the rights holders of an album to earn (the cost of most digital downloads) from Spotify, an individual user would need to stream the tracks on it 1,190 times.And in my small sample size of Verge staffers, most capped out at a few hundred streams per artist.I listened to 13,000 minutes of music on Spotify this year, which means I paid around one-tenth of a cent per minute. Drake was Spotify’s most-streamed artistthis year, with around 1.8 billion streams.And I'm paying Spotify's per month subscription fee; if I were relying on its free, ad-supported tier, the payout for artists would be even smaller. Here's about how much some other Verge staffers paid their favorite artists (technically, the rights holders) this year. That means Drake earned somewhere in the ballpark of million from Spotify.But Year in Music’s quantitative breakdown inherently raises questions about what your stream count really means for artists, i.e., how much money you’re actually paying them.With Year in Music, Spotify has unintentionally given users a tool for determining their monetary value as a fan — at least when it comes to streaming.Much has already been said about how little Spotify pays artists and how unsustainable the current streaming model is for artists.Unless this model changes, or labels take a smaller cut of the profits, the numbers will remain minuscule for smaller artists.Tight control of micro RNA is critical for normal functioning of cells, and the dysregulation of micro RNAs often causes human diseases such as cancer.We made major contributions to the current understanding of how micro RNAs are created and processed by elucidating the mechanism of micro RNA biogenesis and identifying several key factors in the pathway, including DROSHA.